|Problem: The student appears to perseverate or get stuck doing the same activity over and over or saying the same thing or feeling the same emotion; may have difficulty transitioning from place to place or activity to activity; requests to change topics or activities may be greeted with negative behavior; changes in routine cause problems; the student appears to be inflexible. (See Tutorial on Flexibility.)
|Cognitive / Self-Regulatory Possibility: Organizational impairment
Step 1: Organize observations relevant to the problematic behavior/issue
- Who is reporting the problem?
- When does it occur? (Include time of day, activities etc).
- Where does it occur?
- What tends to precede the problematic behavior/issue?
- What tends to follow the problematic behavior/issue?
- What is the age and functioning level of the student?
- Previous documentation/charts?
Step 2: Identify possible contributors to the problematic behavior/issue
In many cases, there are several contributors to the student’s identified problem. These contributors may interact with each other, therefore, it may be necessary to combine tests from different categories of possibilities. The existence of several interacting contributors may become obvious as you proceed through individual intervention experiments.
Organizational impairment: Some students may appear to be inflexible and engage in ritualistic behavior as a result of a specific organizational impairment. (See Tutorial on Organization.)
Relevant Observations: The student’s performance is related to the organizational demands of the task. If a task is not routine and/or has many components to be organized, the student may be unable to succeed. When a transition is well prepared for or has become routine, there is less difficulty. Visual organizers help with transitions. The student may appear confused and disorganized. The student’s materials may be poorly organized. (See Tutorial on Organization.)
Useful experiments for assessment and intervention:
- Observe and record the frequency and/or intensity of the problem behavior when a new teaching strategy or support is being implemented versus when it is not being implemented.
- Possible organization-related teaching strategies or supports (See Tutorial on Organization): Maintaining components of a task, deliver the task within a well understood routine versus within elements of novelty. Compare performance when advance organizers (e.g., picture cues, written outline) are used versus when they are not used. Compare performance when the teacher presents one task at a time versus a multiple component task that requires organizing. Compare transitions that have been well prepared for with transitions that have no preparation.
- If the frequency and/or intensity of the targeted behavior decreases during intervention, it may be that this problem behavior is in part a result of specific organizational impairment. (See Tutorials on Organization; Advance Organizers; Instructional Routines)
Possible referrals: School psychologist for assessment; instructional support specialist for instructional strategies